UNDERGRADUATE STUDENTS’ ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT AND PERCEPTIONS TOWARDS USING FLIPPED INTERACTIVE LEARNING IN HIGHER EDUCATION
The aim of this research was to develop a new model and reduce the dissimilarities in the literature regarding the use of flipped interactive learning approach on undergraduate students’ academic achievement as well as students' perceptions & its effects on their interactive learning. The recent years have seen a raise in the use of flipped interactive learning in higher education contexts as a way of improving the quality of teaching and interactive learning. For this, the empirical study has been done for lessons in a Teaching Strategies course in a pre-service teacher education programme at the University of Alahsa in Saudi Arabia. Lessons were flipped and the impact of such approach was measured using pre-test and post-test results which were compared to those of a control group taught using the standard lecture style adopted at the institution. This research used a mixed-method approach for the data collection e.g. individual semi-structured interviews from 6 students, and 90 undergraduate trainee teachers who were randomly divided into two groups (pre-test and post-test) 30 students are using flipped interactive learning and 60 in the lecture style control group, quantitative structural equation modelling (SEM) was employed to analyse the results. The findings indicate that students in the experimental group achieved higher scores between pre-test and post-test than the control group. In addition, almost all participants in the experimental group expressed positive views towards the flipped interactive learning approach and preferred it to their previous experiences with the lecture style classroom. Most participants indicated that flipped interactive learning brought them academic advantages compared to the lecture style lesson, such as better understanding of the content, improved thinking skills and encouragement to be autonomous learners. Moreover, most students revealed that flipped interactive learning brought them social benefits, such as new interpersonal skills, increasing self-esteem, and increasing enjoyment in interactive learning. Quantitative results, a significant relationship was found between using flipped interactive learning, academic advantages, social advantages, and students’ satisfaction. Therefore, the study indicates that using flipped interactive learning increasing achievement of students. We recommend that students using flipped interactive learning in pursuit of their educational goals. Educators should also be persuaded to incorporate using flipped interactive learning into their classes at higher education institutions.
. Abeysekera, L., & Dawson, P. (2014). Motivation and cognitive load in the flipped classroom: definition, rationale and a call for research. Higher Education Research & Development, 34, 1–14. doi:10.1080/07294360.2014.934336.
. Alamri, M. M., Almaiah, M. A., & Al-Rahmi, W. M. (2020). Social media applications affecting Students’ academic performance: A model developed for sustainability in higher education. Sustainability, 12(16), 6471.
. Alamri, M.M. (2019). Students’ academic achievement performance and satisfaction in a flipped classroom in Saudi Arabia. International Journal of Technology Enhanced Learning, Vol. 11 No. 1, pp. 103-119.
. Algarfi, A. (2010). Teachers’ and pupils’ perceptions of and responses to cooperative learning methods within the Islamic culture courses in one secondary school in Saudi Arabia. Unpublished PhD thesis. University of Southampton.
. Alhadi, S. (2013). Management of change higher education institutions towards good quality and excellent performance. Arab Journal for Quality Assurance in Higher Education, (11), pp. 243-305. (In Arabic)
. Alhussain, T., Al-Rahmi, W. M., & Othman, M. S. (2020). Students’ Perceptions of Social Networks Platforms use in Higher Education: A Qualitative Research. International Journal of Advanced Trends in Computer Science and Engineering, 9(3).
. Al-Maatouk, Q., Othman, M. S., Aldraiweesh, A., Alturki, U., Al-Rahmi, W. M., & Aljeraiwi, A. A. (2020). Task-Technology Fit and Technology Acceptance Model Application to Structure and Evaluate the Adoption of Social Media in Academia. IEEE Access, 8, 78427-78440.
. Al-Rahmi, W. M., Alzahrani, A. I., Yahaya, N., Alalwan, N., & Kamin, Y. B. (2020b). Digital communication: Information and communication technology (ICT) usage for education sustainability. Sustainability, 12(12), 5052.
. Al-Rahmi, W. M., Yahaya, N., Alamri, M. M., Alyoussef, I. Y., Al-Rahmi, A. M., & Kamin, Y. B. (2019b). Integrating innovation diffusion theory with technology acceptance model: supporting students’ attitude towards using a massive open online courses (MOOCs) systems. Interactive Learning Environments, 1-13.
. Al-Rahmi, W. M., Yahaya, N., Aldraiweesh, A. A., Alamri, M. M., Aljarboa, N. A., Alturki, U., & Aljeraiwi, A. A. (2019a). Integrating technology acceptance model with innovation diffusion theory: An empirical investigation on students’ intention to use E-learning systems. IEEE Access, 7, 26797-26809.
. Al-Rahmi, W. M., Yahaya, N., Alturki, U., Alrobai, A., Aldraiweesh, A. A., Omar Alsayed, A., & Kamin, Y. B. (2020a). Social media–based collaborative learning: the effect on learning success with the moderating role of cyberstalking and cyberbullying. Interactive Learning Environments, 1-14.
. Alsayegh, N. (2007). The changeable leadership in Saudi universities in the light of the rules and regulations of higher education, Arabic Universities, Challenges and Future prospects. Morocco, December 2007. The research of the first Arabic conference. pp. 532-562. (In Arabic)
. Ash, K. 2012. Educators evaluate “flipped classrooms. Education Week, 32: S6–8.
. Bagozzi, R. P., Yi, Y., & Nassen, K. D. (1998). Representation of measurement error in marketing variables: Review of approaches and extension to three-facet designs. Journal of Econometrics, 89(1-2), 393-421.
. Barkley EF. 2010. Student engagement techniques: A handbook for college faculty. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
. Baron-Cohen, S., Allen, J., & Gillberg, C. (1992). Can autism be detected at 18 months?: The needle, the haystack, and the CHAT. The British Journal of Psychiatry, 161(6), 839-843.
. Bergmann, J., & Sams, A. (2012). Flip your classroom: Reach every student in every class every day. Eugene, OR: International Society for Technology in Education.
. Bryson, Colin &Len Hand (2007), The Role of Engagement in Inspiring Teaching and Learning. Innovations in Education and Teaching International, 44 (4), 349-362.
. Cakir, M. (2008). Constructivist Approaches to Learning in Science and Their Implications for Science Pedagogy: A Literature Review. International journal of environmental and science education, 3(4), 193-206.
. Creswell, J. W. (2010). Mapping the developing landscape of mixed methods research. SAGE handbook of mixed methods in social & behavioral research, 2, 45-68.
. DeLozier, S.J., & Rhodes, M.G. (2017). Flipped classrooms: a review of key ideas and recommendations for practice. Educational Psychology Review, 1-11. http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s10648-015-9356-9.
. Ennis, R. (2016). Definition: A Three-Dimensional Analysis with Bearing on Key Concepts. in Patrick Bondy and Laura Benacquista (eds.), Argumentation, Objectivity, and Bias: Proceedings of the 11th International Conference of the Ontario Society for the Study of Argumentation (OSSA), 18–21 May 2016, Windsor, ON: OSSA, pp. 1–19. Available at http://scholar.uwindsor.ca/ossaarchive/OSSA11/papersandcommentaries/105
. Ferreri, S., & O'Connor (2013). Instructional design and assessment. Redesign of a large lecture course into a small-group learning course. American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education, 77(1), 1–9.
. Fornell, C., & Larcker, D. F. (1981). Evaluating structural equation models with unobservable variables and measurement error. Journal of marketing research, 18(1), 39-50.
. Hair, J., Hollingsworth, C. L., Randolph, A. B., & Chong, A. Y. L. (2017). An updated and expanded assessment of PLS-SEM in information systems research. Industrial Management & Data Systems.
. Hall, G. F., & Cohen, M. J. (1988). Dendritic amputation redistributes sprouting evoked by axotomy in lamprey central neurons. Journal of Neuroscience, 8(10), 3598-3606.
. Hooks, b. (2010). Teaching Critical Thinking: Practical Wisdom. New York, United States of America: Routledge
. Johnson, D. &Johnson, F. (2014). Joining Together Group Theory and Group Skills. 11th edn. Harlow: Pearson.
. Kohonen, V. (1992). Experiential language learning: second language learning as cooperative learner education. In Nunan, D. (Ed.), Collaborative Language Learning and Teaching, pp. 14-39.
. Krejcie, R. V., & Morgan, D. W. (1970). Determining sample size for research activities. Educational and psychological measurement, 30(3), 607-610.
. Littlewood, W. (1997). Self-access: why do we want it and what can it do? in Benson, P. and Voller, P. (eds.) Autonomy and Independence in Language Learning. London: Longman, pp. 79-92.
. Mason, G., Shuman, T., & Cook, K. (2013). Comparing the effectiveness of an inverted classroom to a traditional classroom in an upper-division engineering course. IEEE Transactions on Education, 56(4), 430–435.
. Mittendorf, K., Geijsel, F., Hoeve, A., Laat, M. &Niewenhuis, L. (2005). Communities of practice as stimulating forces for collective learning. Journal of Workplace Learning, 18 (5), pp. 298–312.
. Moore, K. &Hansen, J. (2012). Effective strategies for teaching in K-8 classrooms. Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE.
. Muijs, D. &Reynolds, D. (2011). Effective teaching: Evidence and practice. 3rd edn. London: SAGE.
. O'Flaherty, J.,& Phillips, C., (2015). The use of flipped classrooms in higher education: a scoping review. Internet High. Educ. 25, 85–95.
. Patton, G. C., Coffey, C., Sawyer, S. M., Viner, R. M., Haller, D. M., Bose, K., ... & Mathers, C. D. (2009). Global patterns of mortality in young people: a systematic analysis of population health data. The lancet, 374(9693), 881-892.
. Pierce, R. & Fox, J. (2012). Vodcasts and Active-Learning Exercises in a “Flipped Classroom” Model of a Renal Pharmacotherapy Module. American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education, 76 (10) 196; DOI: 10.5688/ajpe7610196.
. Schunk, D. (2014). Learning theories an educational perspective. 6th edn. Essex: Pearson.
. Slavin, R. (2011). Instruction Based on Cooperative Learning, in Mayer, R. E. and Alexander, P. A. (eds.), Handbook of Research on Learning and Instruction. New York, NY: Taylor & Francis, pp. 344-360.
. Smith, R. (2008). Key concepts in ELT: learner autonomy, ELT Journal, 62 (4), pp. 395–396.
. Street, S.E., Gilliland, K.O., McNeil, C. et al. (2015). The Flipped Classroom Improved Medical Student Performance and Satisfaction in a Pre-clinical Physiology Course. Medical Science Educator. 25, 35–43. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40670-014-0092-4.
. Vygotsky, L. (1978). Mind in society: The development of higher psychological processes. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
. Wilson, S. (2014). The flipped class: A method to address the challenges of an undergraduate statistics course. Teaching of Psychology, 40(3), 193–199.
The submitter hereby warrants that the Work (collectively, the “Materials”) is original and that he/she is the author of the Materials. To the extent the Materials incorporate text passages, figures, data or other material from the works of others, the undersigned has obtained any necessary permissions. Where necessary, the undersigned has obtained all third party permissions and consents to grant the license above and has all copies of such permissions and consents.
The submitter represents that he/she has the power and authority to make and execute this assignment. The submitter agrees to indemnify and hold harmless the COMPUSOFT from any damage or expense that may arise in the event of a breach of any of the warranties set forth above. For authenticity, validity and originality of the research paper the author/authors will be totally responsible.