Blind Watermarking Technique for Relational Database


  • El_Haggar N Information Technology Department, Faculty of Computers and Information, Helwan University, Egypt
  • Elkhouly MM Information Technology Department, Faculty of Computers and Information, Helwan University, Egypt
  • Abu El Alla SS Information Technology Department, Faculty of Computers and Information, Helwan University, Egypt


Relational database system, hash function, copyright protection, non numeric attribute, watermarking


Recently, using of relational database system in many real life applications is increased. Therefore watermarking is considered as a vital technique for copyright protection of relational database. In this paper, we embedded watermark into some non numeric attribute. The generation of watermark depends on hash function and secret key to increase the security and the difficulty to guess by attackers. Our proposed technique is fully blind, which means that no need for the original tables to detect the watermark.


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How to Cite

El_Haggar, N., Elkhouly, M. M., & Abu El Alla, S. S. (2024). Blind Watermarking Technique for Relational Database. COMPUSOFT: An International Journal of Advanced Computer Technology, 2(05), 121–126. Retrieved from



Original Research Article

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